Even Toni and Dallas were able to recover their passports at the U.S. Consulate in Moscow (which actually has lost-found passports) the next morning; however, for them, the final teams and Phil had already departed for the final leg.
One thing seems to be clear now. When a team loses or misplaces a passport, the decision of when to eliminate them is based on when a team will need to have their passports to travel, and they need to be prepared to show production that they have them. They are given a chance to recover the passport, but if the next route marker point that has teams required to show their passports (i.e., buying tickets or customs leaving a country), then they'll be eliminated. This appears to be how one can view all of the passport issues of these past 8 seasons consistently (including the start of TAR 19 when a team was able to recover a missing passport before teams departed by LAX.)